[IPS] Guidelines for Analyzing WAIS-IV/WISC-V

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-V (WISC-V) are intelligence tests that measure an adult’s and a child’s intellectual ability and five cognitive domains that impact performance. These tests have taken a crucial role in psychological testing as they can help provide concise analyses on one’s psychological state along with other… Read More

[IPS] Stimulus Discrimination Training

What is Stimulus Discrimination Training? Stimulus Discrimination Training is the process of reinforcing a behavior only when a specific antecedent stimulus is present. Here, the stimulus is one that precedes the occurrence of the behavior. Two steps are involved in this training: 1. The behavior is reinforced when the discriminative stimulus is present. The discriminative… Read More

[IPS] The Principles of Behavior Modification #3 Punishment

Punishment is one of the basic elements of ‘behavioral modification’. Unlike reinforcement, ‘punishment’ is when an immediate consequence is given to decrease the frequency of certain behavior. The consequence refers to the application of aversive or unpleasant stimulus or removal of a reinforcer. Punishment occurs in our daily lives. Not only disciplines from guardians or… Read More

[IPS] The Principles of Behavior Modification #2 Extinction

Extinction is one of the basic elements in behavior modification. In behavioral modification, ‘extinction’ systematically reduces previously reinforced behavior by taking away the reinforcers or stimuli for that behavior, ultimately aiming to eliminate the behavior. In the process of extinction, an ‘extinction burst’ may occur. It is a temporary increase in the frequency, duration, and… Read More

[IPS] The Principles of Behavior Modification #4 Shaping

Shaping is a behavioral procedure in which successive approximations of a target behavior are differently reinforced until the person engages in the target behavior. Successive approximations, or shaping steps, are behaviors that are increasingly more like the target behavior. A successful shaping would include the following: Define the target behavior Determine whether shaping is the… Read More

[IPS] The Principles of Behavior Modification #1 Reinforcement

Reinforcement is one of the basic elements in behavior modification. In behavioral modification, ‘reinforcement’ is the process in which a behavior is strengthened by the immediate ‘consequence‘ that reliably follows its occurrence.  The consequence refers to any stimulant that can affect the occurrence of an operant behavior. The stimulant is called a ‘reinforcer’. Positive and… Read More

[IPS] Comprehensive Psycho-educational Evaluation for Bilingual Children Between the Ages 3-7

After an initial intake interview with the parents, several intellectual and psychological assessments are provided to students who are referred to the Center for International Psychological Services due to learning difficulties. Through the intellectual assessment, the strengths and limitations of the students and where their academic struggles come from are recognized to establish a treatment… Read More